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Mechanical analysis of the scratching of metals and polymers with conical indenters at moderate and large strains

Abstract : Scratch test provides a convenient mean to study the surface mechanical properties and the tribological performances of materials. The representative strain of the material in this test increases with the attack angle beta of the indenter and so for a conical indenter increases as its apical angle 2 theta decreases. But the mechanical analysis of this test by analytic models is very intricate. First we perform a preliminary discussion of the various aspects of the problem by considering the plane strain scratching of materials by wedges. After we present the conditions of the numerical simulations of the scratch test with conical indenters with a three-dimensional (3D) finite element code. These simulations provide the scratch geometry (contact surface, elastic recovery), the plastic strain map and the volume average plastic strain, the scratch hardness and the force ratio, the apparent friction coefficient mu(0)=F-t/W. So we compare the behaviour of polymeric and metallic materials in scratch test at low and large strain and relate their difference in scratching resistance to their rheological properties. Polymers develop more higher elastic strains than metals a phenomenon which is characterised at low strain by the yield stress to Young's modulus ratio epsilon(e) = sigma(y)/E. For theta = 70.3 degrees where pure ploughing occurs we study the scratching of elastic perfectly plastic solids with various values of epsilon(e) under zero friction. Some comparisons with the behaviour in indentation are performed and we study the influence of friction in the scratching of workhardened steel with the same cone. At high strain the main rheological difference is the workhardening behaviour: it is described by a power law for metals and an exponential law for polymers. For theta decreasing from 70.3 to 20 degrees we compare the behaviour of a cold worked steel to the behavour of polycarbonate, a thermoplastic polymer: a transition from ploughing to ploughing-cutting occurs only for steel.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 1, 2010 - 5:28:09 PM
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Eric Felder, Jean-Luc Bucaille. Mechanical analysis of the scratching of metals and polymers with conical indenters at moderate and large strains. Tribology International, Elsevier, 2006, 39 (2), pp.Pages 70-87. ⟨10.1016/j.triboint.2005.04.005⟩. ⟨hal-00514249⟩



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