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Void closure criteria for hot metal forming: A review

Abstract : Void elimination through mechanical closure remains of prime importance for industrial applications. This paper presents a critical review on a large number of studies dealing with void closure in hot metal forming processes. In the literature, two main approaches were identified at two different scales: a macroscopic approach at the process scale and a micro-analytical approach at the void scale. Using the macroscopic approach, entire processes are generally considered with workpieces containing one or several voids, dealing with hot forging, hot rolling and related processes. Qualitative results, as well as empirical criteria and empirical prediction models are presented and discussed in this paper. Using the micro-analytical approach, an isolated void in an infinite matrix is considered and its evolution is analytically predicted. Analytical and semi-analytical prediction models involve a certain number of assumptions that are discussed in an industrial context. This paper presents a comparison between seven prediction models, in terms of void volume evolution under conditions that are typical for industrial applications. Stress triaxiality ratios are over the range [−1.2, 0] and several material behaviours are considered. It is shown that empirical models. Empirical models are hardly generalizable, as they are based on particular case studies involving one given void state or one given process. On the other hand, analytical and semi-analytical models suffer from strong assumptions. Consequently, their use in an industrial context remains limited. The use of a meso-scale approach is shown as a potentially powerful approach, as it may take advantage of both existing approaches from literature.
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Michel Saby, Pierre-Olivier Bouchard, Marc Bernacki. Void closure criteria for hot metal forming: A review. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2015, 19, pp.239-250. ⟨10.1016/j.jmapro.2014.05.006⟩. ⟨hal-01022635⟩

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