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Phase field approaches of bone remodeling based on TIP

Abstract : The process of bone remodeling includes a cycle of repair, renewal, and optimization. This adaptation process, in response to variations in external loads and chemical driving factors, involves three main types of bone cells: osteoclasts, which remove the old pre-existing bone; osteoblasts, which form the new bone in a second phase; osteocytes, which are sensing cells embedded into the bone matrix, trigger the aforementioned sequence of events. The remodeling process involves mineralization of the bone in the diffuse interface separating the marrow, which contains all specialized cells, from the newly formed bone. The main objective advocated in this contribution is the setting up of a modeling and simulation framework relying on the phase field method to capture the evolution of the diffuse interface between the new bone and the marrow at the scale of individual trabeculae. The phase field describes the degree of mineralization of this diffuse interface; it varies continuously between the lower value (no mineral) and unity (fully mineralized phase, e.g. new bone), allowing the consideration of a diffuse moving interface. The modeling framework is the theory of continuous media, for which field equations for the mechanical, chemical, and interfacial phenomena are written, based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Additional models for the cellular activity are formulated to describe the coupling of the cell activity responsible for bone production/resorption to the kinetics of the internal variables. Kinetic equations for the internal variables are obtained from a pseudo-potential of dissipation. The combination of the balance equations for the microforce associated to the phase field and the kinetic equations lead to the Ginzburg–Landau equation satisfied by the phase field with a source term accounting for the dissipative microforce. Simulations illustrating the proposed framework are performed in a one-dimensional situation showing the evolution of the diffuse interface separating new bone from marrow.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 5, 2016 - 4:54:30 PM
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Jean-François Ganghoffer, Rachid Rahouadj, Julien Boisse, Samuel Forest. Phase field approaches of bone remodeling based on TIP. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, De Gruyter, 2016, 41, pp.49-75. ⟨10.1515/jnet-2015-0048⟩. ⟨hal-01270141⟩



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