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Methodology for aluminium part machining quality improvement considering mechanical properties and process conditions

Abstract : The manufacturing of structural aluminium alloy parts requires several steps of both forming processes and heat treatments. Before machining, which is usually the last step of the manufacturing, the workpiece has thus undergone multiple manufacturing steps involving unequal plastic deformations which are source of residual stresses. During machining, where up to 90% of the initial workpiece volume can be removed, the mechanical equilibrium of the part evolves constantly with the redistribution of the initial residual stresses. For thick, large and complex parts in highly alloyed aluminium, this redistribution of the residual stresses can leads to an unexpected behaviour of the workpiece and is the main reason for both workpiece deflections (during machining) and post-machining distortions (after unclamping). These two phenomena can lead to the nonconformity of the part with the geometrical and dimensional tolerance specifications and therefore to the rejection of the part or to additional conforming steps. As a consequence, the mechanical behaviour of the workpiece has to be considered during the definition of the machining process plan to improve the machining accuracy and the robustness of the process and thus to ensure the conformity of the machined part with the dimensional and geometrical specifications, i.e. to ensure the desired machining quality. In this paper, the numerical tool developed in [1] is used to conduct an analysis on the influence of the initial workpiece residual stress state, of the fixture layout as well as of the machining sequence on the machining quality. This analysis is performed on a part which has been specially designed and which can be considered as being representative of real aerospace parts. Several comparisons with experimental results are performed, one of them using digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. Results obtained show a good agreement, validating both the prediction of the behaviour of the workpiece during machining and the prediction of the machined part geometry. Based on the results of this analysis, a classification of the parameters has been performed depending on their influence on the machining quality. A first methodology allowing to define machining process plans adapted to the initial workpiece stress state has then been created based on the previous classification. This methodology is composed of a procedure and basic guidelines which are both presented in detail. An example of an application of this methodology is then introduced, demonstrating the benefits of the approach developed in this work.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 25, 2017 - 4:28:14 PM
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Xavier Cerutti, Katia Mocellin, Sami Hassini, Benoît Blaysat, Emmanuel Duc. Methodology for aluminium part machining quality improvement considering mechanical properties and process conditions. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Elsevier, 2017, 18, pp.18-38. ⟨10.1016/j.cirpj.2016.07.004⟩. ⟨hal-01446181⟩



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