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Three-dimensional probabilistic simulation of solidification grain structures: Application to superalloy precision castings

Abstract : A two-dimensional (2-D) probabilistic model, previously developed for the prediction of microstructure formation in solidification processes, is applied to thin section superalloy precision castings. Based upon an assumption of uniform temperature across the section of the plate, the model takes into account the heterogeneous nucleation which might occur at the mold wall and in the bulk of the liquid. The location and crystallographic orientation of newly nucleated grains are chosen randomly among a large number of sites and equiprobable orientation classes, respectively. The growth of the dendritic grains is modeled by using a cellular automaton technique and by considering the growth kinetics of the dendrite tips. The computed 2-D grain structures are compared with micrographie cross sections of specimens of various thicknesses. It is shown that the 2-D approach is able to predict the transition from columnar to equiaxed grains. However, in a transverse section, the grain morphology within the columnar zone differs from that of the experimental micrographs. For this reason, a three-dimensional (3-D) extension of this model is proposed, in which the modeling of the grain growth is simplified. It assumes that each dendritic grain is an octaedron whose half-diagonals, corresponding to the <100> crystallographic orientations of the grain, are simply given by the integral, from the time of nucleation to that of observation, of the velocity of the dendrite tips. All the liquid cells falling within a given octaedron solidify with the same crystallographic orientation of the parent nucleus. It is shown that the grain structures computed with this 3-D model are much closer to the experimental micrographie cross sections.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 18, 2017 - 5:05:33 PM
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Charles-André Gandin, Michel Rappaz, Rémy Tintillier. Three-dimensional probabilistic simulation of solidification grain structures: Application to superalloy precision castings. Metallurgical Transactions A, 1993, 24 (2), pp.467 - 479. ⟨10.1007/BF02657334⟩. ⟨hal-01564450⟩



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