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Numerical modelling of the impact of energy distribution and Marangoni surface tension on track shape in selective laser melting of ceramic material

Abstract : The present study is based on a formerly developed 3D finite element modelling of the selective laser melting process (SLM) at the track scale. This numerical model is used to assess the impact of two phenomena on the shape of the elementary track resulting from SLM processing: laser interaction on one hand, and Marangoni effect on the other hand. As regards laser interaction, it is modelled by a Beer-Lambert type heat source, in which lateral scattering and material absorption are considered through two characteristic parameters. The impact of these parameters is shown in terms of width and depth of melted zone. The Marangoni effect caused by tangential gradients of surface tension is modelled to simulate the fluid dynamics in the melt pool. The resulting convection flow is demonstrated with surface tension values either increasing or decreasing with temperature. The influence of energy distribution, surface tension effects, as well as laser scanning speed on temperature distribution and melt pool geometry is investigated. The stability and regularity of the solidified track are a direct output of the simulations, and their variations with material and process conditions are discussed.
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Qiang Chen, Gildas Guillemot, Charles-André Gandin, Michel Bellet. Numerical modelling of the impact of energy distribution and Marangoni surface tension on track shape in selective laser melting of ceramic material. Additive Manufacturing, Elsevier, 2018, 21, pp.713 - 723. ⟨10.1016/j.addma.2018.03.003⟩. ⟨hal-01809287⟩

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