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Laser-induced plume investigated by finite element modelling and scaling of particle entrainment in laser powder bed fusion

Abstract : Although metal vaporisation has been observed in several laser processes such as drilling or welding, vapour plume expansion and its induced side effects are not fully understood. Especially, this phenomenon is garnering scientific and industrial interest since recent investigations in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) have designated metal vaporisation as main source of denudation and powder spattering. The present study aims to provide a new insight on the dynamics of laser-induced vaporisation and to assess the potential of different gases for particle entrainment. A self-consistent finite element model of laser-induced keyhole and plume is thus presented for this purpose, built from a comprehensive literature review. The model is validated with dedicated experimental diagnostics, involving high-speed imaging to measure the ascent velocity of the vapour plume. The transient dynamics of vapour plume is thus quantified for different laser incident intensities and gas flow patterns such as the mushroom-like structure of the vapour plume are analysed. Finally, the model is used as a tool to quantify the entrainment flow expected in LPBF and an analytical model is derived to define a velocity threshold for particle entrainment, expressed in term of background gas properties. Doing so it is possible to predict how denudation evolves when the gaseous atmosphere is changed.
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Yaasin Mayi, Morgan Dal, Patrice Peyre, Michel Bellet, C Metton, et al.. Laser-induced plume investigated by finite element modelling and scaling of particle entrainment in laser powder bed fusion. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, IOP Publishing, 2019, 53, pp.075306. ⟨10.1088/1361-6463/ab5900⟩. ⟨hal-02462496⟩

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