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Effect of processing parameters during the laser beam melting of Inconel 738: Comparison between simulated and experimental melt pool shape

Abstract : Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to understand the link between processing parameters and solidification conditions during the laser beam melting (LBM) process. To be able to use this tool for microstructural control, numerical models need to be validated on a large set of experimental conditions, to ensure that the model describes the predominant physical phenomena. In this study, an experimental set of twenty tracks was produced in an Inconel 738 alloy, with a wide range of energy input and scanning speed. Experimental melt pool shapes were compared to the predictions of a multiphysics numerical model. In this model, the powder bed is considered as a continuum. The laser source is modeled with a Beer-Lambert absorption law, and surface tension, Marangoni force and recoil pressure are the driving forces for melt pool dynamics. This kind of model offers an efficient computational time, but requires a calibration of the absorption coefficient and a representative description of laser-matter interaction. In order to represent correctly heat and mass transfer during laser-matter interaction, the model needs to account for the loss of matter caused by the ejection of powder particles and spatters. A novel calibration method was proposed to calculate the absorption coefficient. This method uses the experimental cross sections of the melt pools and a simplified analytical expression of energy balance. The use of this calibration method enabled a good agreement between experiments and calculations on a large process window. The values obtained by the calibrations resulted in a phenomenological expression of absorptivity coefficient with process parameters. Based on this expression, a comparison was made with another numerical model from literature using a time-consuming ray-tracing method in order to calculate the absorptivity coefficient. Similar results have been obtained, demonstrating the potential of the proposed approach to predict the melt pool shape and thus better understand the combined effect of laser-matter interaction and solidification in LBM process.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 6, 2020 - 5:16:04 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, November 24, 2020 - 4:24:35 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, February 7, 2021 - 6:03:59 PM

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D Grange, A Queva, G Guillemot, Michel Bellet, J-D Bartout, et al.. Effect of processing parameters during the laser beam melting of Inconel 738: Comparison between simulated and experimental melt pool shape. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Elsevier, 2021, 289, pp.116897. ⟨10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2020.116897⟩. ⟨hal-02986926⟩

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